The way a bank operates is like this: You deposit your money into a checking account, say $1,000.00. The bank then shows the deposit on the asset side of the balance sheet (I'll go into how a balance sheet works in another article. Suffice it to say here that it means the bank views your money as their money. You can read about it here: Murray Rothbard: The Mystery of Banking, page 92.). This is the bank's reserves. The bank then can (and does) take that deposit and lends 90% of it to businesses, individuals, and whoever the bank deems credit worthy. In the process the bank charges interest on the money lent, and it is usually a very long term note, such as 15 or 30 years in length. Below is an example:
Deposit: $1,000.00 Loans: $900.00
Because the bank has $1,000.00 of hard money (money earned by the depositor through the sweat of his brow or his investments. In the beginning and to a certain extent now, it is gold...hard money), and will then lend out up to $900.00, leaving $100.00 in reserves. So far, so good. There is still $1,000.00 in the banking system. What happens next? The borrowers of the $900.00 will then deposit it in a bank and spend the money they borrowed into the economy to buy items for their business (or if it is a consumer loan, to buy a car, vacation, etc..). The deposits made into these banking institutions will then be lent out as well leaving 10% in reserves, whereby these loans are then deposited as well. So following the line of money a little bit looks like this:
- First deposit: $1,000.00 Loans: $900.00
- Next set of deposits: $900.00 Loans: $810.00
- Next set of deposits: $810.00 Loans: $729.00
- Next set of deposits: $729.00 Loans: $656.10
A Little History
I will come back to modern fractional banking and the pros and cons of it below. But let's first take a look at how it developed in the first place.
Fractional reserve banking started around the 17th century in both Britain and the Netherlands. People during that time used the goldsmiths to store their precious metals, and in return would be issued a receipt for the metals they had deposited. Over time, these receipts would be used literally as money itself, for it was easier than having to go to the goldsmith to get the gold, then go and pay for items with said gold. After all, the receipt represented the actual gold itself. The goldsmiths observed that, at most, 10 to 20% of the receipts were ever redeemed at one time, so they started printing more receipts than they had in gold. This they used for lending out to people as loans whereby they would charge interest. Thus was the beginning of fractional reserve banking. It would seem to be an illegal operation because by printing more receipts for gold than they had in gold is fraud. The receipts are basically worthless. So how did it become the legalized institution it is today? By court order. There was a case called Foley v Hill and Others in England in 1848 that actually legalized it. Here Murray Rothbard lists the exact verbiage:
So there you have it. The general origins of fractional reserve banking and the legacy of our monetary system. There is quite a lot of controversy as to whether it is or isn't a good system for economic growth. Let us examine the pros and cons.Money, when paid into a bank, ceases altogether to be themoney of the principal; it is then the money of the banker,who is bound to an equivalent by paying a similar sum tothat deposited with him when he is asked for it. . . . Themoney placed in the custody of a banker is, to all intents andpurposes, the money of the banker, to do with it as hepleases; he is guilty of no breach of trust in employing it; heis not answerable to the principal if he puts it into jeopardy,if he engages in a hazardous speculation; he is not bound tokeep it or deal with it as the property of his principal; buthe is, of course, answerable for the amount, because he hascontracted.
The Case for Fractional Reserve Banking
The main argument for the use of fractional reserve banking is the multiplier effect. This, in essence, means that by increases in the money base above the stated reserves, the overall wealth of a country increases. The rational is that by adding more money or credit to the system, more loans can be made to businesses and new start ups that can create more and better products. As an example, a farmer can approach a bank and get a loan to buy a machine that can harvest 1000 plums as compared to the farmer only able to pick 100 plums in the same amount of time. By increasing the plum output, we as a nation are better off...more wealthy. By persuading individuals to store their earnings in a bank (as mentioned above, it first meant the the storage of gold and later on, dollars), the banks are now able to use it to increase wealth. This argument also states that if someone holds onto their gold (say that the person is a hoarder and buries it), it is not wealth. That it really represents nothing, and it certainly is not put to good use.
The Cons of Fractional Reserve Banking
There are, however, some serious issues one must consider in relation to fractional reserve banking. First of all, it is fraud. If you deposit your money into an account, it is a demand deposit, meaning that you should be able to withdraw all or part of it whenever you want. After all, it is your money. But in reality only 10 or 20% on average is actually in your account. The rest is loaned out. It is not there. Second, it is inflationary. Arguments go back and forth as to whether inflation is good for economic growth or not (I'll address this another time), but suffice it to say that inflation in and of itself eats into your savings. Your savings will lose value over time, thus lowering your personal wealth. Third, the banks almost from the moment they open their doors are insolvent because of fractional reserve banking. If everybody decides that they want their money at the same time, the banks will go out of business. The depositors will lose their money. This is known as a bank run. It happened very often before the advent of the Federal Reserve. Why doesn't it happen today? Because the Federal Reserve will lend banks money to pay depositor demands. How? Printing money out of thin air. This in an of itself seems a bit funny to me. It certainly makes one question the real value of the dollars they are holding on to. Fifth, the banks are taking your deposits and using it for loans on their books. They are putting your money at risk, but you get no return. In other words, your money is working for the bank. It gains profits, and if they lose money they get bailed out by the federal reserve. You do not. Sixth, it creates distortions between economic growth and actual wealth. Increasing the money supply will inspire entrepreneurs to take on more risk to grow businesses, but if the individual's savings and personal wealth doesn't keep up, it eventually leads to excess businesses closing and a contraction of the money supply (in a nutshell, a recession and potential depression).
Economic growth can happen in a sustainable way without fractional reserve banking. For one thing, demand deposits should be treated as demand deposits. They should not be lent out. The banks can make money by charging a monthly fee for the checking account. In truth, it is similar to an institution that stores gold for an investor. They store it for safe keeping and charge the appropriate fees to run at a profit. Now what banks can do to get investment capital for loans is offer investment vehicles for customers whereby the customer will lend their money for a given period of time to a bank for rate of return. This way a bank can lend out that money and make a profit for itself and the the individual that lent his money to the bank. This is what a CD is for. Banks and investment institutions can design any number of investment vehicles to suit market needs.
There are many other aspects of our monetary system that must be addressed for our prosperity. For example, it would be very beneficial if we allow free banking and get back to a gold standard for our money supply, but the fractional reserve money system needs to be changed as well. As explained above, there are many problems with fractional reserve banking. Left unchecked it plays a major role with inflation, recessions and depressions.
On a personal level, we can keep most of our wealth out of the banking system. At the very least, one can keep low balances in their checking accounts. This makes it harder for the banks to leverage up their balance sheets. We can also store our wealth in precious metals. The value of gold and silver will not go down due to inflation like the dollar will. I believe that if the majority of people get into gold and silver, the money system will have to be changed. It can bring back a gold standard. And finally, if we all do a better job of researching investment vehicles and other opportunities, we will be better off as a nation.